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Split

Split is not only an urban, cultural and traffic centre of Dalmatia with road and sea connections to Dalmatia's numerous summer resorts, but it is itself often a tourist and excursionists destination. A city with a 1700-year old tradition, a variety of archaeological, historical and cultural monuments, among which the well-known Palace of Diocletian, inscribed into the UNESCO World Heritage List, certainly occupies a special position, and the warmth and offer of a modern Mediterranean city... General information Split is not only an urban, cultural and traffic centre of Dalmatia with road and sea connections to Dalmatia's numerous summer resorts, but it is itself often a tourist and excursionists destination. A city with a 1700-year old tradition, a variety of archaeological, historical and cultural monuments, among which the well-known Palace of Diocletian, inscribed into the UNESCO World Heritage List, certainly occupies a special position, and the warmth and offer of a modern Mediterranean city. The first detailed tourist guide through the town and its surroundings, published in 1894, bears witness to the long tourist tradition in Split. To be able to grasp the historical significance of the city, one should first visit the museums of Split: the Museum of Croatian Archaeological Monuments - a capital Croatian cultural project, established in 1893 in Knin; the Archaeological Museum from 1820, one of the oldest in Croatia; the Treasury of the Split Cathedral, including a valuable collection of religious art; the Ethnographic Museum, founded in 1910; the Museum of Marine History; the Museum of Natural Science. The Art Gallery, established in 1931, the Collection of the Franciscan Monastery in Poljud, the Mestrovic Gallery, and other are also worth visiting. Split is a major sports centre (the 1979 Mediterranean Games) with many famous and popular sports clubs and competitors. There are also many sports facilities for recreational purposes. The sports offer includes almost all types of water and other sports, from football, basketball and tennis to mountain climbing and rifle-shooting, water skiing and rowing. Worth visiting is Marjan Forest Park, the green oasis the citizens of Split have been proud of for generations, carefully maintained and cherished. The park includes promenades, vista points, solariums, nature paths, playgrounds and the Split zoo. A marvellous view is offered from the top of Marjan on the old and new parts of Split. It takes only 15 minutes of pleasant walking to reach Marjan from the historical core of Split through the old quarter Varos. The Marjan stairway, running along the crest of the hill, leads to another, higher top of Marjan, Telegrin, with a vista point offering prospect on the Split peninsula, Kozjak, Mosor, the Kastela Gulf, Salona and Klis, Trogir and Ciovo, and the islands of Solta, Brac, Hvar and Vis. The southern cliffs of Marjan represent in recent times a very good training ground for mountaineers and free climbers, who gather here every April on the occasion of the traditional Marjan Cup. Split has a variety of restaurants and wine cellars, offering domestic specialities. There are many beaches and public beaches in the city and its surroundings, the most popular of them being Bacvice, a sand beach almost in the very heart of the town. The cultural and entertainment offer of Split is extremely rich, particularly in the summer, when the city squares, yards and other areas turn into a large open-air stage. The Split Summer, a traditional festival in the middle of the summer season, includes dramas, operas and concerts (from mid-July to mid-August). The Split Saturday Nights are de-voted to classical music. Split also hosts pop-music events, the Art-Summer, folklore shows, the folk feast Day of Radunica, and many other. Major cultural events during the year are the Days of Marulic (in April), the Book of the Mediterranean (in October), and the traditional events include the Day of the Holy Cross, the Flowers Show, the Ball of Split, wine show and other. The Day of St. Doimus (Duje), who is the patron saint of the city, is commemorated on the 7th of May. Split has several theatres, among which the Croatian National Theatre, established in 1893, deserves a special mention as a house hosting theatrical festivals, the Split Summer and the Days of Marulic. There is also the Youth Theatre, and the Split Puppet Theatre. Split ACI Marina has 500 berths in the sea and accommodates 100 vessels on the land. Open throughout the year. Split, a city and port in Central Dalmatia. Situated on a peninsula between the eastern part of the Gulf of Kastela and the Split Channel. A hill, Marjan (178 m), rises in the western part of the peninsula. The ridges Kozjak (780 m) and Mosor (1,330 m) protect the city from the north and northeast, and separate it from the hinterland. Split has the Mediterranean climate: hot dry summers (average air temperature in July reaches 26 °C) and mild, humid winters (average annual rainfall is 900 mm). Split is one of the sunniest places in Europe: the average daily insolation during the year is about 7 hours (in July about 12 hours). Vegetation is of the evergreen Mediterranean type, and subtropical flora (palm-trees, agaves, cacti) grows in the city and its surroundings. Marjan is covered with a cultivated forest. Development of steam-shipping, construction of railroad connections with the hinterland before and between the World Wars, and particularly industrialization underlie the economic prosperity and increase of the population in Split. Split is a business, administrative and cultural centre of Dalmatia. Apart from shipbuilding industry, other manufacturers include processing of plastic masses, cement industry, food and other products. Vegetable, fruit and flowers are grown in the surroundings. Split is an important Croatian port in terms of passenger and goods traffic. It is the centre of the maritime connections with the ports on the coast and the islands and terminal railway station of the rail connections with the hinterland. Ferries operate regularly between Split and the central Dalmatian islands, as well as to Ancona in Italy. Ship connections are established, except with the islands, with Pula, Venice, Dubrovnik and Greece. The airport of Split is situated in Resnik (Kastela). Split has many cultural and educational institutions and schools: the University of Split (established in 1974), the theatre, museums, galleries, institutes, and recently a specialized UN institution for protection of environment in the Mediterranean (Regional Activity Centre for the Priority Actions Programme).The Spit Summer, a cultural event (open-air operas, plays and concerts), as well as music perfomances (Melodies of the Croatian Adriatic, Split Festival of Pop Music) take place every year. Split disposes of a variety of sports facilities, swimming pools and piers for sports boats and similar. Both stationary and transit tourism record a permanent increase. New port, hotel and tourist facilities have been constructed. The coves within the city offer several public beaches. Split has four marinas: Split ACI Marina in the north-western part of the City Port; the sports boats pier Spinut on the northern coast of Marjan; the sports boats marina Poljud in the Poljud Port; the sports boat pier Zenta on the eastern coast of Split. The City Port of Split in the centre of the city is used only for passenger and ferry traffic History Probably an ancient Greek settlement called Aspalathos. Emperor Diocletian constructed there around AD 300 a luxurious palace in which he resided until his death and where he was buried. After his death (AD 313) the Palace was used as a residence of expelled Roman emperors and their family members (Julius Nepos). When Salona was conquered around AD 614 by the Avars and Slavs, its citizens fled to find shelter within the walls of Diocletian's Palace. A new settlement soon developed; the former diocese of Solin was re-established already in the 7th century. Split acknowledged the supremacy of the Byzantine emperors from AD 812 to 1069 when it was annexed to Croatia by King Petar Kresimir IV. In 1105 the city acknowledged the nominal suzerainty of Hungarian-Croatian kings, having preserved its autonomy based on its ancient municipal rights. From 1207 the citizens elected Croatian, Hum and Bosnian feudal lords for their priors and commissioners (Duke Domald, Petar of Hum, Grgur of Bribir, Pavao and Mladen Subic, Hrvoje Vukcic Hrvatinic). In 1420 Split acknowledged the protectorate of Venice which tried to strengthen its position in Dalmatia and restrict the rights of the cities. In the 16th century Split was threatened by the Ottoman Turks, especially after the conquest of Klis (1573). Upon the end of the Candian and Morean Wars (second half of the 17th c.) the town gradually recuperated. On the fall of Venice in 1797, it fell together with the remaining Dalmatia under the power of Austria which ceded it in 1805, under the Treaty of Pressburg, to France. Between 1813 and 1918 it was again under the sovereignty of Austria. This was a period of economic stagnation but also of the revival of national consciousness. The 1882 elections in Split introduced Croatian administration. In the second half of the 19th century Split saw an economic recovery to become the most important port at the beginning of the 20th century. Split has long represented an important cultural centre. Already in the 8th century there was an actuarial school. In the 13th century Thomas the Archdeacon (Toma Arhidakon) wrote a work titled Historia Salonitana, an important source of the mediaeval history of the Croats. At the end of the 15th century Split became a powerful humanistic centre, in which Marko Marulic, poet and polyhistorian, author of the first epic in the Croatian language (Judita), as well as several other humanistic writers, poets and historians lived and worked. Split leaves even today its special mark in the Croatian creation and culture. Heritage In the early Middle Ages the town was built within Diocletian's Palace. Commercial prosperity of the 13th and the 14th centuries spurred a more intense construction; the town spread outside the Palace, and a new centre developed along the western walls of the Palace which was fortified in the 14th century, and in the 17th century a new defence system with projecting bastions, constructed by A. Magli, was erected. Field labourers quarters Veli Varos and Lucac developed to the north and the east of the town, which later merged with the nucleus of the old town into a whole. Between the two World Wars the city expanded over the southern slopes of Marjan and to the eastern part Bacvice, where a modern part of the city was constructed. During the Second World War Split was heavily bombed, particularly the coastal part southeast of the Palace of Diocletian (today's park). Since the 1950s Split has been characterized by a sudden spatial expansion (new blocks, the so-called Split III and other). 1. The Old Town (Grad). The oldest nucleus of Split is located within the walls of Diocletian's Palace. According to its dimensions and level of preservation, the Palace represents the most valuable example of Roman architecture on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea. It was constructed around AD 300 and has a rectangular ground-plan. Its form and arrangement of the buildings within the Palace represent a transitional style of an imperial villa, Hellenistic town and Roman camp. The southern, seaward side of the Palace (181 m long), with subsequent annexes, can be viewed from the coast. The Brass Gate (Porta Aenea), a vaulted passage leading from the sea into the interior of the Palace, are in the middle of the southern side. To the left is the entrance into the cellars of Diocletian's Palace, with a system of corridors and halls under the southern parts of the Palace which can be visited by tourists. Walking along the eastern side of the Palace one reaches the Silver Gate (Porta Argentea) with the church of St. Dominic on the opposite side, which was first mentioned in the 13th century. Its present aspect dates from 1682, and it was reconstructed between 1932 and 1934; it contains Baroque altars, the paintings representing the Miracle in Surian (Jacopo Palma the Younger) and The Apparition in the Temple (Palma's school), and a wooden Gothic cross. Through the Silver Gate one reaches the Plain of King Tomislav. Passing by the small Renaissance church of St. Roch (Rocco) (1516) one arrives to the Peristyle (Peristil), the central open-air area of the Palace. Its longitudinal sides are surrounded by an arched colonnade; the arches in the west are closed by Gothic and Renaissance houses. A monumental port with four columns carrying a gable closes the Peristyle in the south. Between the columns of the entrance two chapels were built in, Our Lady of the Belt (1544) and Our Lady of Conception (1650). The mausoleum of Diocletian, today's Cathedral of St. Doimus (Dujam) (dedicated to St. Mary) lies in the eastern part of the Peristyle. The mausoleum has almost completely preserved its original octagonal form, encircled by 24 columns (peripteral) which were bearing the roof; the interior is round, with two rows of Corinthian columns and a frieze (medallions with figures of Emperor Diocletian and his wife Prisca). A dome, once covered with mosaics, roofs the mausoleum. The monumental wooden gateposts (reliefs with scenes from the life of Christ), a work by Andrija Buvina (1214), and the stone pulpit from the 13th century represent the oldest monuments in the Cathedral. The altar on the right, with a late Gothic baldachin, was made by Bonino da Milano (1427). The vault above the altar is decorated with mural paintings, a work by Dujam Vuskovic (15th c.). the altar of St. Anastasius (Stas), made by George of Dalmatia (Juraj Dalmatinac) in 1448 is to the left (the predella features an excellent central scene of the Flagellation). The chapel in the northern wall accommodates the Baroque altar of St. Doimus, a work by the Venetian sculptor G. M. Morlaiter (1767); the vault of the chapel is decorated with paintings by M. Capogrossa. The main altar dates from the 13th century; the vault above it is ornamented with paintings by M. Poncun; a wooden Gothic cross from the 14th century rises above the altar. The choir, constructed in the 18th century, is furnished with Romanesque seating from the 13th century (the oldest in Dalmatia) and ornamented with a painting re-presenting the Mother of God with the saints and donors, a work by J. Palma the Younger, as well as with Baroque paintings by M. Poncun. A crypt lies under the Cathedral. A building with a sacristy and treasury leans on the Cathedral. The treasury keeps a collection of gold artefacts and mass vestments from the Romanesque, Gothic and Baroque per-iods; the most valuable pieces include a ciborium from 1522, the 8th-century evangelistary (the oldest manuscript in the country), the 11th-century Supetar chartulary and Historia Salonitana by Thomas the Archdeacon from the 13th century. Three Romanesque reliefs from the 13th century were built into the foot of the belfry towards the main entrance; the peripteral construction accommodates several sarcophagi from the 9th to the 15th centuries. The Romanesque belfry was erected between the 12th and the 16th centuries, collapsed at the end of the 19th century and reconstructed in 1908. Two Romanesque lion figures lie at the foot of the belfry, and the right wall is decorated with an Egyptian black granite sphinx (15th c. BC). A small temple rises opposite the mausoleum, probably dedicated to Jupiter, turned into the baptistery in the early Middle Ages. Only the closed part of the temple (cella) with a richly decorated portal has been preserved; the interior is roofed with a barrel coffered vault. The baptismal font was framed with stone plates in the 19th century, decorated with "pleter" - interlacery ornamentation (the central plate represents a figure of a Croatian ruler on the throne). The baptistery features the sarcophagus of Ivan Ravenjanin (following the tradition of the first archbishop of Split) from the 7th century and the statue of John the Baptist (Ivan Mestrovic). A Renaissance sarcophagus (1533) is in front of the baptistery. The foundations of the building in front of the baptistery contain a stone arch with the astragal motif (7th c.), the oldest known monument of mediaeval Split. Diocletian's Street runs from the Peristyle to the north where the Golden Gate (Porta Aurea) rises; Agubio Palace, with a Gothic portal and inner yard is to the left. To the right, in Papaliceva Street, Papalic Palace (15th c.), the most important example of Gothic architecture in Split (richly ornamented portal, big tetrastyle on the southern end, original Gothic ceiling in the main hall) is located; architectonic details bear distinctive marks of Juraj Dalmatinac's workshop. The palace accommodates the Museum of the City of Split. A Romanesque house is immediately in front of the Golden Gate, to the left; its northern Gothic end is ascribed to Juraj Dalmatinac. A side-street leads through the stairs to the church of St. Martin, situated in a part of the hall above the Golden Gate; the church features a stone altar partition, with "pleter" (interlacery ornamentation) and an 11th-century inscription. The way through the Golden Gate leads to an open area, with the statue of Grgur Ninski (Gregory of Nin) rising on an elevation, erected in 1957 (Ivan Mestrovic, 1929). The little park northwest of the gate accommodated the remains of the church of St. Euphemia (first mentioned in 1069; collapsed in the fire of 1877), on which a Benedictine nuns' monastery used to lean. The foundations of a three-nave church (11th c.), the chapel of St. Arnir, built by Juraj Dalmatinac in 1445, and the belfry have been preserved. Kresimir Street leads from the Peristyle to the Iron Gate (Porta Ferrea) in the west; Cindro Palace (17th c.), the most beautiful Baroque palace in Split, rises to the right. The hall in the wall above the Iron Gate houses the small church of Our Lady of the Belfry (Bar-oque altar, By--zan----tine icon dating from around the 11th c., wall paintings by Mene-ghello from 1412). The Ro-ma-nesque belfry (aro-und 1100) is the oldest one in Dalmatia. Through the Iron Gate one reaches the square Na-rodni Trg (Piaca), centre of the mediaeval commune and the liveliest sq-uare- of today's Split. A clock-tower (16th c.) rises above the Iron Gate, overlooking the squa-re. Of the Gothic ho-uses which used to close the northern end of the square only the Town Hall (1443), with a loggia in the ground floor, has survived; the first floor, expanded in 1820, was refurbished in neo-Gothic style at the end of the 19th century. The building houses the Ethnographic Museum (folk costumes from Dalmatia). To the right of the Town Hall, over a small bridge, the Renaissance Karepic Palace from the 16th century is situated, and the Gothic Cambi Palace from the 15th century is located in the north-western end of the square. The house in the south-western end has a relief depicting St. Anthony the Abbot (1394) built in the façade. Domald Street runs northwards, with a Renaissance portal from 1583 through which the way to the former church and monastery of St. Mary de Taurello leads; fragments of the Renaissance cloister ha-ve been preserved. Trogir Street branches off to the left of Domald Street, in which a small Gothic church of the Holy Spirit is situated, with a Romanesque relief featuring Christ on the Throne above the churchyard portal and the tomb of the sculptor Andrija Alesi. Subiceva Street runs from the western end of Narodni Trg to the south; the small late Gothic Papalic Palace (15th c.) is to the right, built by Juraj Dalmatinac, and the Baroque Tartaglia Palace lies further down the street. Su-biceva Street terminates on Braca Radic Square, with the Marko Marulic statue (Ivan Mestrovic) rising in the centre of the square. Milesi Palace, early Baroque, closes the northern end of the square, and the so-called Hrvoje's Tower, the remain of the Venetian citadel from the 15th century, rises in the south. Through the passage in the tower one reaches the coast. 2. Western part (Veli Varos, Marjan, Meje). A small square with the mo-nastery and church of St. Francis are situated on a small square in the western part of the coast. The monastery was established in the 13th century. The church, reconstructed in the 19th century, keeps a Gothic cross, Gothic -wooden sculpture of St. Lucia (15th c.), tombs of the historian Thomas the Archdeacon (around 1200-1268), the writers Marko Marulic (1450-1524) and Jerolim Kavanjin (1641-1714), and the composer Ivan Lukacic (1584- 1648) in the choir, as well as several Baroque paintings and sculptures. A Gothic cloister leans on the church. North of the church, on a slope of Marjan, lies Veli Varos, with its thick network of streets and picturesque scenery. From Krizeva Street to the left through the Stagnija, an interesting church, St. Nicholas (Mikula) from the 12th century is situated, and to the right of the cross-roads the parish church of the Holy Cross (17th c., expanded in the 19th c.) with a Baroque bell tower; the church has a painted Gothic cross, a Gothic sculpture of the Virgin Mary with Child as well as several Baroque paintings. Senjska Street leads along the slopes of Marjan to the Marjan Stairway, and then ascends mildly to the left (offering a beautiful view on the port of Split) to the church of St. Nich-olas dating from the 13th century. The stairs on the right run to the Natural Science Museum, with a zoological garden near it. From this point, the way leads to Marjan. The road descending westwards from the vista point on Marjan (about 1 km) reaches an expanded intersection (Sedlo); the small church of Our Lady of Bethlehem from the 15th century is further down to the right, on the top of a picturesque staircase. From the church, around the next bend, a road branching off westwards runs to the small church of St. Jerome (Jere) from the 15th century (a relief by A. Alesi); a former cave is situated near the church. Along the promenade from the church of St. Francis the way leads to Hotel Marjan (designed by L. Perkovic) and then further to Split ACI Marina. A way branches off to the left leading to the picturesque small Sustipan peninsula, where once a Benedictine monastery (established around 1000, abandoned in the 14th c.) and the church of St. Stephen (ruins) used to stand. At the beginning of the 19th century the cemetery and the classicist pavilion were erected. The present church of St. Stephan was built in 1814 (a Gothic polyptych from the 15th c. with the Nativity on the predella). Fragments originating from the early Romanesque and Romanesque churches were built in the church and the walls encompassing the graveyard. The road leads westwards through the part of the city called Meje. The Museum of Croatian Archaeological Monuments - the major institution of Croatian culture - is located to the right along Gunja-cina Street which runs to the Marjan Tunnel. The most distinguished of several villas found there is the Mestrovic Gallery. The Mestrovic Citadel lies further to the west, along the lower end of the road, once a palace of the Capogrosso-Kavanjin families (17th c.). A chapel housing a cycle of Mestrovic's reliefs in wood is situated within the complex surrounded by a high wall. The road leads to Cape Marjan, where the Institute of Oceanography and Fishery and its aquarium are situated. On the way to the Institute one can see the ruins of an early mediaeval church of St. Jerome, built probably on the remains of an ancient temple. 3. Northern part (Dobri, Poljud). Marmontova Street runs from the western end of the Coast of the Croatian National Revival to the north, where the Bulatova Poljana lies; Splitske Toplice, a thermal bath, is to the right, and the wall of a 17th-century bastion is to the left. The Luka Botic monument (Ivan Mestrovic) stands on the Poljana. The western end of the square is closes by the building of the Croatian National Theatre (1893), and the northern with the church of Our Lady of Health (1937, architectural design by L. Horvat; fresco by I. Dulcic); the 17th-century belfry used to be part of an earlier church. Zrinsko-Frankopanska Street runs behind the theatre to the north, and Lovretska Street, with the Art Gallery and the Archaeological Museum further left, branches off to the right. The interesting pre-Romanesque small church of the Holy Trinity, with a six-foil ground-plan, lies not far from the Park of the Youth, which can be reached by passing a block of new houses. The large Hajduk football stadium, in form of a shell, of bold structures, one of the most original constructions of the kind in the world, is opposite of the church. Swimming pools are located by the st-adium as well as the Poljud monastery. The church dating from the 15th century possesses a Gothic (15th c.) and a Baroque cross (Fulgencije Bakotic), and a polyptych by Girolamo da Santacroce (1549). The Renaissance cloister accommodated tombstones of the Split patrician families. The monastery keeps the portrait of the Split humanist Tomo Niegro (Lorenzo Lotto, 1527) and two bands of chorales with illuminations by Bono Razmilovic (17th c.). 4. Eastern part (Lucac, Bacvice). Railway and bus terminals as well as the ship and ferry port facilities are located on the Kneza Domagoja Coast. A massive lighthouse, with a relief by Andre Krstulovic, rises on the forested elevation at the end of the port. The way from Diocletian's Palace over the bridge above the railway leads to the "Bishop's" Palace in neo-Renaissance style. -Kralja Zvonimira Street runs from the Palace to the east, accommodating the monastery and church of St. Clare the monastery holds a Romanesque crucifix (13th c.), several icons as well as Renaissance and Baroque paintings by Venetian masters. The former suburb Lucac, with its narrow, steep alleys and picturesque blocks of irregularly shaped houses, is to the north of the Bishop's Palace. The Gripe fortress, erected in the 17th century, is on the top of the elevation. The Bacvice quarter, famous for its recently reconstructed public beach and Hotel Park, lies east of the railway station.

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